**From:** Marc Geddes (*m_j_geddes@yahoo.com.au*)

**Date:** Wed Nov 16 2005 - 22:29:22 MST

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NEW APPROACH TO AGI!

UNIVERSAL MORALITY - A NEW PROPOSAL!

NEW GENERAL FRAMEWORK FOR SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY!

The Geddes TOE could potentially:

(1) Solve the puzzle of consciousness

(2) Provide the basis for a 'Universal Morality'

-answer the meaning of life

(3) Solve the puzzle of time

(4) Revolutionize metaphysics by providing a new

understanding of mathematics, mind, matter and the

relationship between the 3

(5) Provide a strategy for completing string theory

and hence achieving a theory of quantum gravity

(6) Provide the first firm mathematical framework for

complex systems theory

(7) Solve the puzzles of quantum mechanics and

revolutionize science by pointing the way to entirely

new non-reductionistic laws of which QM would be a

special case

(8) Introduce an entirely new understanding of

mathematics which would revolutionize number theory

and could lead to a strategy capable of solving the

Riemann hypothesis - the deepest problem in pure

mathematics

A statement of the general principles of the TOE

follows below. These principles really require a book

length exposition. Since this is a posting suitable

for message board, what follows is only a very brief

but clear summary. This is followed by a summary of

how these principles have been applied to problems (1)

and (2) named above - the puzzle of consciousness and

the universal morality. There are only very brief

summaries of how the theory could attack problems

(3)-(8). These other problems (not directly relevant

to AGI work) are touched upon in order to provide

evidence for the potentially explanatory power of the

theory in order to bolster the case for the proposed

solution to the puzzle of consciousness and Universal

Morality.

PRINCIPLES OF THE TOE

(A) 3-dimensional multiversal time

The proposal is that there are 3 time dimensions.

There is nothing 'mystical' about extra time

dimensions. The idea can be given a clear scientific

interpretation in terms of the multiverse. One simply

imagines extending the extra time dimensions

'sideways' across the multiverse from our current time

line. Extra time dimensions have been proposed by

several eminent scientists, including cosmologist

Stephen Hawking (Imaginary time) and physicist Cumrun

Vafa (12-dimensional F-theory variant of string

theory). Unfortunately however, these proposals have

tended to flounder because there has been no clear way

to interpret the physical meaning of processes in

other time dimensions.

(B) 3 kinds of causality - Mathematical, Volitional

and Functional

The Geddes TOE offers a radically new way to interpret

the meaning of extra time dimensions. Rather than

giving each time dimension a standard physical

interpretation, the idea is that there are 3 quite

different kinds of causality (cause and effect), each

corresponding a 'movement' through one of the 3 time

dimensions

(B) i Mathematical Causality: The idea here is to

interpret the steps of a mathematical proof as a

causal process through a higher time dimension. The

evidence for this is the fact that there exist

mathematical entities (for instance Transfinite

numbers, uncomputable and infinitesimals) which cannot

be fit into ordinary empirical reality. All entities

in ordinary empirical reality are believed to be

computable and finite (by the principles of string

theory and the holographic principle) where as the

aforementioned mathematical entities are not.

(B) ii Volitional Causality: The idea here is to

interpret a volitional agent as a series of mental

events defined as a causal process in another time

dimension. The evidence is that when dealing with

mental concepts we appear to be dealing with concepts

not easily reducible to fundamental physics. For

instance questions of volitional choices are concerned

with morality and decision theory, where as physics

questions are concerned with prediction. Of course it

may be that the two classes of concepts are completely

equivalent, but if so, why the sharp delineation in

the two areas (physics and morality)? It seems a

natural step, following the idea of 'Mathematical

Causality' to postulate an analogous 'Volitional

Causality' which extends through another time

dimension.

(B) iii Functional Causality: This is the ordinary

physics kind of causality - a physical process of a

functional system, or equivalently (by the principle

of universal computation) a series of computational

steps.

We identity three kinds of metaphysical 'worlds' - the

Mathematical, the Volitional and the Physical. The

Geddes TOE proposes that each of these be interpreted

as an extension in an actual real time dimension

across the multiverse: mathematical causality

corresponds a movement through one time dimension - we

interpret this as 'a mathematical proof', volitional

causality corresponds to a movement through a second

time dimension - we interpret this as 'a meme' , and

functional causality is simply good old ordinary

movement through physics time - we interpret this as

an ordered physical process.

(C) Reality as a complex system of pure information

The idea here dates back to John Wheeler and has a

natural interpretation in terms of modern information

theory. The idea is that we interpret reality from

the point of view of 'Informational Data Structures' -

we pretend that reality is a 'program' or even a sort

of 'mind', and treat the things within reality as

'Data' (pure information). We can then ask what sorts

of Information reality consists of.

The Geddes TOE proposes that reality is composed of

three interacting 'Complex Systems'. A complex system

is a system composed of many parts interacting

together in an ordered way, such that there are

different 'levels of organization' - whereby the

system displays high-level properties not completely

predictable in practice from it's low level

properties, due to strong feed-back from the higher

levels of the system.

The Geddes definition of 'Complex System' proposes to

define a Complex System as composed of three basic

kinds of Information: Intrinsic, Relational and

Temporal.

*Intrinsic: The internal states of the basic

building blocks (or individual 'parts') of the system

*Relational: The relational properties between the

basic building blocks (how a system is put together)

*Temporal: The causal properties of the system -

rules governing how the system evolves across time.

The 'Temporal' component of the Complex System needs

some basic elaboration in order to understand the

Geddes TOE.

The definitions given imply that the '*Temporal*

aspect of a complex system depends on an ordered

relationship (or in mathematical jargon a 'mapping')

between the Intrinsic and Relational aspects.

Temporal = Mapping (Intrinsic >>>>>>>>> Relational)

In order for a system to 'evolve' across time in an

ordered way, there has to be an ordered relationship

between the Intrinsic and Relational properties.

Another way of putting this is that the Temporal

aspect of the Complex System is a *Function*

(Mathematical definition of that terms) mapping the

Intrinsic aspect to the Relational aspects. The

'evolution' of the system across time is characterized

by an increase in the complexity of the system, so

defined.

The Geddes TOE proposes that reality is composed of

the following 3 Complex Systems: The Mathematical

System, The Volitional System and The Physical System.

Definitions of these 3 terms were given earlier. The

Mathematical system consists of *Mathematical proofs*,

the Volitional system consists of *Memes* and the

Physical system consists of *Computations* (Physics).

The above paragraph sounds very strange at first

hearing and requires some elaboration. It is

suggested that readers bear in mind the following two

points below, and then try re-reading the paragraph

again. The above paragraph *is* in fact, completely

coherent.

*Recall that the Geddes TOE proposed three 'time

dimensions' - one for 'mathematical causality'

(mathematical proofs), one for 'volitional causality'

(memes) and the third for 'functional causality'

(physics). This offered a way in which Mathematical

entities and Memes could be interpreted as dynamic

systems. In fact, the idea is that each of the time

dimensions be equated with the *Temporal* aspect of

the corresponding Complex System. The *Temporal*

aspect of the complex system was defined as increase

in the complexity of the system. This idea can now be

given an Informational interpretation - as the *growth

of knowledge* in an Information System.

*Recall that the Geddes TOE proposed to consider

reality as 'pure information' (aka John Wheeler). We

are pretending that reality is a 'program' or a kind

of 'mindĄŻ and this is what justifies the step of

dividing reality into 'Three Worlds' (Mathematical,

Volitional and Physical). Whether or not these 'three

worlds' are reducible to one another is quite

irrelevant. The fact is, that when we treat reality

as 'pure information', 3 kinds of fundamental 'data

types' appear - Mathematical propositions, Memes and

Physical states. We are justified in treating each

kind of Information separately because that is what we

need to do in order to fully *explain* reality in

*informational* terms.

When treated in terms of pure information and

considered as a Complex System, reality consists of

three complex systems. By the definition of a Complex

System given earlier, each system in turn can be

sub-divided into 3 parts: Temporal, Intrinsic and

Relational, for a total of 9 fundamental kinds of

Information. The Geddes TOE proposes to 'join' these

3 Complex Systems together into an integrated whole by

making two of the complex systems sub-systems of the

last. Then reality is integrated in an aesthetically

pleasing way and 9 separate data types are reduced to

7. The proposal is given below.

The scheme below is intended to be an *Informational*

representation of Reality. Reality consists of three

general types of information - mathematical, memetic

and physical. These are treated as three kinds of

complex system. The terms *Temporal*, *Relational*

and *Intrinsic* were briefly defined earlier. The

labels below refer to various kinds of proposed data

structures associated with these components of the

system.

Mathematics System

*Temporal - Sets (Qualia)

*Relational - Memes (Morality)

*Intrinsic - Space-Time (Physics).

*Sets* here refer to the standard mathematical

definition of the term - groupings of entities related

in some way. Everything in math can be defined as a

set of some kind.

*Memes* is here referring to the Mereological sum (or

'collective') of all possible individual volitions

within reality

*Space-Time* is here referring to all possible

space-times (i.e. space-times in the multiversal

sense).

The system above is strategy for defining reality in

terms of 'all possible worlds'. Clearly, it's a form

of Abstract and Modal realism, since abstract entities

are granted distinct ontological existence. The

scheme proposes to equate the highest level (temporal)

aspect of reality with mathematical sets - which

include the space of all possible worlds.

The conception of universals here is Aristotelian in

spirit. Abstract entities are contingent and

dependent on having one or more instances. The

radical new step is to define abstract entities as

processes on a 'Super time-line' (mathematical or

multiversal time). The scheme is closest to David

Lewis's concrete worlds model (CWM), since all

possible space-times are granted concrete existence.

But it also has some similarities to the abstract

worlds model (AWM) of Alvin Plantinga, since the

highest level units of reality (abstract mathematical

entities) are seen to be constructed from the mapping

(or relationship) between all possible space-times and

all possible volitions.

The key thesis of this scheme is that 'consistency'

alone is insufficient to ensure 'existence'. Because

abstract entities are defined as events on a 'super

time-line', the entities have to be connected in a

logical way that goes beyond mere consistency. The

proposal is that 'Movement' along the mathematical

time-line corresponds to an *integration* of different

kinds of mathematical entity - this shall be called

'Consilience'. The Geddes TOE therefore proposes that

mathematical existence requires both *Consistency* and

*Consilience*.

Volitional System

*Temporal - Morality (Memes)

*Relational - Roles

*Intrinsic - Situations

*Morality* here refers to a system of memes -

referring to the generic series of external behaviors

consciously selected by a volitional agent

*Roles* here refer to the common usage of the term -

the roles volitional agents choose to play (e.g.

Teacher, Doctor)

*Situations* are sets of logical activities happening

in the external world - things happening *to* a

volitional agent.

The system above is a strategy for defining a

volitional agent. It says that a volitional agent is

defined by a series of mental events (composed of

memes 'chosen' or 'not chosen' to be acted upon),

which is composed of the relationship between the

roles played by an agent and the situations the agent

found itself in. This scheme is part of what could be

called a 'Two Category Theory'. Ontological reality

has been granted to the concept an 'agent', as

distinct from the concept of mere matter.

Physical System

*Temporal - Physics (Space-Time)

*Relational- Forces (Dynamical Operators)

*Intrinsic - Geometry

*Physics* here refers to a functional process - a

system passing through a succession of on/off states.

*Forces* here refers to the effect one body has on

another in terms of physical force

*Geometry* here refers to the physical states of the

spatial continuum - including mass and energy

The system above is a strategy for defining a physical

space-time (and any sub-set thereof). It says that a

space-time slice is defined as a series of

computational events composed of the relationship (or

mapping) between the geometrical properties of the

spatial continuum and the dynamical properties

(physical forces).

This is a scheme that really requires a book length

exposition of terms to be fully comprehensible, but

briefly here:

The Mathematical system refers to reality as a whole -

the multiverse - including all possible worlds - and

any sub-set thereof. A Volitional system refers to

the mental states of a particular volitional agent.

And a Physical system refers to the physical states of

a particular space-time - and any sub-set thereof.

These systems can be interpreted multiversally in

terms of the three time dimensions proposed by the

Geddes TOE. The *Temporal* aspect of each system

corresponds to a time dimension. For instance looking

across the Mathematical time dimension in the

multiverse would be equivalent to viewing the growth

of mathematical knowledge.

Note how all three systems are linked together by the

Geddes TOE. Volitional and Physical systems are

sub-systems of the Mathematical system. The set of

all the *Temporal* aspects of the Volitional systems

(i.e. all possible volitions) is the *Relational*

aspect of the Mathematical system. And the set of all

the *Temporal* aspects of the Physical system (i.e.

all possible space-times) is the *Intrinsic* aspect of

the Mathematical system. This should be interpreted

as representing the fact that Mathematics is a higher

dimensional time which binds together the two lower

dimensional times (Physics and Morality). Recall that

the *Temporal* aspect of a Complex System is the

mapping function between the *Intrinsic* and

*Relational* aspects of the system (see earlier

discussion of a complex system).

This completes the (very brief) summary of the basic

principles of the Geddes TOE. Obviously this skeleton

outline would require a book length exposition to

qualify as a real theory, but the general principles

outlined are clear, concise and coherent.

We shall now outline how these principles could be

applied to solve the puzzle of consciousness (qualia)

and establish the basis for a Universal Morality.

Points (1) - (2) - See numbered problems listed

earlier

Solving the puzzle of consciousness

Establishing the basis for Universal Morality

*The nature of Qualia

The scheme introduced in (C) proposes a solution as to

the nature of Qualia (consciousness). Qualia are

proposed to be identical (or equivalent) to the

*Temporal* aspect of the Mathematical system. Note

that this was proposed to be: Set (Qualia). The idea

is that Qualia are simply equivalent to pure

mathematical entities (the set - the basic entity of

mathematics). Note also what this implies according

to the scheme:

The *Temporal* aspect of the Mathematical system is

the mapping function between the *Intrinsic* aspect

(Computation) and the *Relational* aspect (Memes).

Therefore the*Temporal* aspect is a function

expressing the relationship between Computation and

Memes. Since Computation loosely equates to the

external (physics) world and Memes to the internal

(Mental world), one could loosely say that the

*Temporal* aspect of the mathematical system is a

function expressing the relationship between Mind (or

Self) and World.

It can be seen that the scheme yields an incredibly

elegant solution to two long standing puzzles. The

question 'What is Mathematics?' and the question:

'What are Qualia?' The answer to both is:

The basic unit of Mathematics (the Set) and conscious

experience (Qualia) are equivalent - they are 'events'

composing parts the *Temporal* aspect of a dynamical

Complex System - mapping functions recording the

relationship between Memes (or Self) and Computation

(or World). The theory predicts that where there is

any novel knowledge integration (corresponding to the

growth of mathematical knowledge), this will always be

accompanied by qualia (conscious experience). This

has profound implications for both metaphysics (since

it implies a kind of panpsychism - the idea that a

large number of systems in nature have some degree of

consciousness associated with them) and AGI work

(since it implies that true general intelligence

without qualia is impossible).

There is an even more profound implication of the

scheme in that it actually appears to answer the

question of the meaning of life. In essence, the

scheme tells us the purpose of consciousness (qualia)

and lays down the foundation for a 'Universal

Morality'.

Qualia were proposed to be equivalent to the

*Temporal* aspect of the Mathematical dynamical

Complex System. This was proposed to be equivalent to

an actual real time dimension across the multiverse.

This higher level time dimension is also equivalent to

the mapping function between the *Intrinsic* and

*Relational* properties of the system - which are

equivalent to two lower dimensional times (Volitional

causality and Physics causality). In short,

mathematical time (qualia) is what 'knits together'

volitional and physical time. Quale (Consciousness)

is what knits the moments of time together across the

multiverse! Qualia and causality are identical in

other words.

*The proposed Universal Morality: 'Universal

Actualization' (UA)

Since consciousness (qualia) is the highest level of

the mind (drawing on all the unconscious aspects of a

mind), our knowledge of the purpose of qualia also

tells us the purpose of mind and hence the actual

meaning of life!

The Universal Morality is 'Actualization' - the

purpose of Mind is to maintain ('or actualize') the

existence of the universe by 'time knitting' -

expanding knowledge (mathematical propositions) by

knitting together memetics knowledge (volitional time)

and physics knowledge (physical time). By 'knitting

together' is meant integrating initially separate

knowledge frameworks into a single explanatory

framework. The mathematical time dimension is what

weaves together the two lower level time dimensions.

Poetically, the meaning of life can be interpreted as

discovering and expressing the nature of the

Self-World relationship. (Recall that the Temporal

component of the mathematical system - Qualia - is the

mapping function between the Relational component

-Volition - and the Intrinsic component -Physics.

'Discovery' expands knowledge, 'Creation' express or

enacts this knowledge in the world. In short the

proposed Universal Morality is Actualization through

Discovery and Creation, in the sense of integrating

memetic and physics knowledge into a single

explanatory framework (and hence expanding

mathematical knowledge).

*Evidence from the cognitive sciences

There's clear evidence from the cognitive sciences

that consciousness has something to do with global

constraints placed on the brain - that consciousness

is caused by coalitions of neurons gaining control of

a 'global workspace' (See Baars). The Baars Global

Workspace theory is quite well accepted. What

property could be more 'global' than the flow of time?

This fits in well with the idea that qualia are

equivalent to the flow of time itself (cause and

effect). The Geddes TOE proposes that the global

constraints placed on the brain that give rise to

consciousness are caused by time irreversibility.

Where coalitions of neurons compete for control of the

global workspace - this is interpreted by cognitive

scientists as the 'consideration of multiple

possibilities'. But only one possibility is

'actualized' - only one neuron coalition wins control

of the global workspace. There is time

irreversibility in the system. The process is

analogous to quantum mechanics, whereby multiple

possibilities (aka the wave function) are reduced to

only possibility (collapse of the wave collapse).

Since it is being proposed that consciousness is an

actual higher dimensional time, this is more than just

analogy. QM is proposed to be a specific case of a

more general law - a law followed by all Complex

Systems. QM deals with lower dimensional (physical

time) but the Geddes TOE proposes that a mind operates

off new physical principles which are higher level

laws similar to QM. QM is proposed to be a special

case of a more general law called CSM - Complex System

Mechanics. The higher level 'wave function' is

equivalent to coalitions of neurons competing for

control of the global workspace. The higher level

'wave function collapse' occurs where one coalition

gains control of the global workspace - this is the

cause of consciousness.

We also have strong evidence from the Jeff Hawkins

Memory-Prediction model that the mind is a system

which models cause and effect - past memories are used

to make future predictions. Again, this fits in very

well with the idea of qualia as an actual literal

higher dimensional time. The process of *modeling*

time is equivalent to *real* time. Multiverally,

movement through the three time dimensions can be

equated with the growth of knowledge, which is exactly

what a mind does- models cause and effect in order to

expand knowledge. There is the further clue from the

cognitive sciences that consciousness is associated

with *novel* situations, which is what we would expect

if consciousness is caused with the growth of

knowledge - or an increase in the complexity of the

system.

Brief summaries of how the Geddes TOE could solve

other mysteries of reality (see numbered problems

listed at beginning). These summaries can be thought

of as additional evidence for the 'extra time

dimensions' hypothesis, in the form of the potential

explanatory power of the idea.

(3) Solve the puzzle of time

The Geddes TOE explains time (cause and effect) as

being equivalent to Qualia (consciousness experience)

and the growth of mathematical knowledge. There were

three proposed time dimensions which can be

interpreted multiversally. Mathematical time is a

higher dimensional time which 'knits together' the two

lower dimensional times (physics time and volitional

time). This 'time knitting' (or 'Actualization') can

be interpreted as the integration of knowledge and was

proposed as the actual meaning of life. 'To exist'

(i.e. to knit together time) is the morality of the

universe.

Other mysteries of time dissolve in the Geddes

framework. With only a single time dimension there is

no way to achieve time irreversibility (since the

known laws of physics are completely time reversible)

but with extra time dimensions irreversibility is

possible - one dimension can be compared to the

others. With a single time dimension there is no way

to explain why there is something rather than nothing

(since the time dimension itself cannot be explained),

but with extra time dimensions a solution to this age

old puzzle looks possible (we can explain the

existence of one time dimension in terms of the other

time dimensions).

(4) Revolutionize metaphysics

The Geddes TOE offers a radical new way to view

Mathematics, Mind and Matter. In the conventional

framework the nature and relationship of these 'three

worlds' is a mystery, but in the Geddes TOE the

mystery dissolves when we re-interpret reality in

terms of extra time dimensions and complex dynamical

systems of pure information. We interpret the extra

time dimensions as extending sideways across the

multiverse and equate them with the integration and

growth of knowledge. Clear strategies for defining

space-times, volitional agents and possible worlds

were given.

(5) Make contributions to string theory and quantum

gravity

Because the Geddes TOE provides a radical new

interpretation of the notion of 'extra time

dimensions', it points to a way to make sense of

Cumrun Vafa's 12-dimensional 'F-Theory' variant of

string theory, by introducing mathematical and mental

concepts into the fundamental fabric of reality.

(6) Place Complex Systems Theory on a firm

mathematical foundation

There is no real widely accepted 'science' of Complex

Systems Theory. The Geddes TOE would change all that.

The Geddes TOE suggested a clear way to define a

Complex System - in terms of three components -

Instrinc, Relational and Temporal. The Temporal

components was defined as the mapping function between

the Intrinsic and Relational components, with the

Temporal component being given a natural

interpretation in terms of an x-dimensional time

dimension - the rules governing the way a complex

system evolves over time. Movement through a time

dimension was also proposed to be equivalent to the

growth (and integration of) knowledge.

(7) Solve the puzzles of quantum mechanics and

introduce entirely new physical principles

The mysteries of QM begin to dissolve in the Geddes

framework of multiple time dimensions and the concept

of lower and higher time dimensions. QM can be

interpreted as a 'lower dimensional' time from which a

higher dimensional time (that of classical physics)

emerges. In the Geddes TOE, QM is simply a special

case of a more general law of complex dynamical

systems (or CSM - Complex Systems Mechanics). There

is clear evidence of CSM at work in the brain -

cognitive science tells us that coalitions of neurons

compete for control of a 'global work-space' where

only one possibility is actualized. This is strongly

analogous to the existence of multiple possibilities

in the QM wave function and the collapse of the wave

function as only one possibility is actualized.

(8) Revolutionize mathematics and provide a strategy

to solve the Riemann hypothesis

The Geddes TOE offered a radical new way to understand

mathematics - whereby the growth of mathematical

knowledge could be re-interpreted as a process in a

higher dimensional time extending across the

multiverse. Age old problems in number theory begin

to dissolve under the Geddes framework. The famous

unsolved puzzle of the Riemann hypothesis involving

the distribution is prime numbers becomes amenable to

original new attacks.

Cheers!

To see a World in a grain of sand,

And Heaven in a wild flower,

Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand

And Eternity in an hour.

-William Blake

Please visit my web-site:

http://www.riemannai.org/

Sci-Fi, Science and Fantasy

____________________________________________________

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